Diamond the Mineral
As the hardest mineral in existence, a diamond is highly regarded for its beauty and ability to reflect light in an extremely dazzling way. Diamonds display a large amount of brilliance and fire, meaning they sparkle a lot, and always retain a freshly polished look.
Created out of pure carbon, the carbon atoms within diamonds are bonded very strongly, which makes for the hardness and strength of the stone. Diamonds are the hardest known substances.
Because of the strength of this carbon bonding, diamonds rate a 10 on the Mohs scale- meaning they are as hard as a stone could possibly be. Since antiquity, it has been known that diamonds are the hardest stone. Because of this, the hardest diamonds can only be scratched with other diamonds. Also because of their hardness, not too much care is needed to keep your diamond looking new. It keeps a polish for a very long time and is therefore suitable for everyday wear. Other chemicals cannot affect diamonds, because they are the most durable and inert material.
In their most natural form, diamonds are clear, but because of impurities of light elements, such as nitrogen, diamonds can also be found in colors such as orange, green, blue, pink, black, yellow, orange, green, red, and brown.
The brilliance of a diamonds comes from a combination of reflection, dispersion, and refraction. A ray of light first passes through a diamond and is then bent, or refracted. Then, this bent ray is reflected through a facet at the bottom of the stone and through the top of the stone. When refraction occurs, each ray is bent at a slightly different angle, which is referred to as dispersion. Of all gems, diamonds have the highest index of refraction.
The most popular cut of diamond is called a brilliant cut, a cut where numerous facets are placed so the most rays of light will reflect through them. This cut is determined by mathematical and empirical analysis. A Brilliant cut does not refer to the shape of the actual stone, but the proportion and symmetry of the diamond.